April Primetime Ratings on the Rise for CNN, Fox News

2 May


A busy news month, including the Boston Marathon bombings and the Texas fertilizer warehouse explosion, sent more viewers to the cable news networks during primetime in April, with CNN surging and surpassing MSNBC but unable to top longtime leader Fox News.

Nielsen estimates that Fox News averaged 1.97 million viewers in primetime for the period of April 1-28, placing it third among all cable networks, behind only USA (2.51 million) and Disney Channel (2.37 million). The net was up 9% from April 2012, when it had placed seventh among cablers.

Rising considerably more (from its smaller base) was CNN, which grew 79% to 900,000; it ranked 20th among all cablers, up from 39th in April 2012. But MSNBC dropped 9% to 666,000 and ranked 29th.

CNN made it a competitive month in the key news demo of adults 25-54, placing 25th among all cable networks in April (330,000) — a…

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The rise of internet media in China

23 Apr

China’s Internet development has become one of the most important topics on the global communication research area. Internet is treated primarily as a tool or platform for education, social integration, community formation, or e-government, rather than a medium for news gathering and news disseminating.(Rebecca, 2008) The advent of the Internet in ordinary family in China happened by the middle 1990s.
By 2000, Internet chatrooms had grown sufficiently large and popular that foreign journalists, often encouraged by their local staff, began following and reporting on key online discussions – especially during times of crisis and media crackdowns.(Rebecca 2008 ).

The growth of internet access and the web have multiplied the amount of information available, the variety of sources, the timeliness of the news, the national and international reach of the news. China has more than 384 million internet users, more than any other country, and an astounding 145 bloggers.(Susan,2008). The most dramatic effect of the internet is how fast it can spread information, which is the first place news appears; it sets the agenda for other media. Chinese internet users learn almost instantaneously about events happening overseas and throughout China. Thanks to the major news website that compile articles from thousands of sources, including television, newspapers and magazines, and online publications like blogs, and disseminate them widely. Other complementary technologies, such as cell phones, amplify the impact of internet. Millions of people gets news bulletins text messaged automatically to their phones.
China’s new online media are consisted by three major parts-the state-owned news websites which was called xinwen wangzhan, such as the Renmingwang and Xinhua wang; the private owned commercial online media which was called wangluomeiti and the regional online media complex. The degree of control of different tpyes of news are different. Political and environment news is the most tightly scrutinized, while sports news, entertaining news, education news, economic news and others types are much looser controlled.

China’s State owned media

22 Apr

All of the TV stations and CCP party newspapers and some of the internet media belong to the state. China’s state owned media is function as the mouth and throat of the CCP(China’ Communist Party ), it is a tool of the state propaganda. On the other hand, state media is the most widespread channel for Chinese citizens to receive news and official information. It is particularly important for the release of information regarding legal news, new laws, new government policies and regulations and update of legal system. In China, television is the most tightly controlled. Television is the most important source of information for the majority of population, reaching widely into rural areas as well as urban areas. It remains the most tightly controlled type of medium in China by propaganda department at all administrative levels. All television station are owned by national, provincial, municipal or country governments and used for
propaganda purpose. Chinese media outlets must manage a difficult and sensitive position as the media continues its political role as the mouthpiece of the CCP with increasing hard budget constraints, market pressure, and competition. All major newspapers and radio and television stations continue to be registered under state or party organizations, they are owned at least 51% by the party .

Why it is so hard to get everyday people to contribute “citizen journalism” for news organizations.

18 Apr

The online citizen journalist is an individual who intends to publish information and news online by oneself. the term ‘citizen journalist’ will mean any person who does not get paid by a mainstream news organization to report and write online as part of a local blog, website, or forum imparting information about the geographic community. Much has been written about the ability of these people to interact with, buoy, challenge, and even usurp media institutions online . The number of citizen journalists is becoming more and more large with the improvement of website technology. There are no figures available that estimate the number of online citizen journalism consumers. However, research indicates that anywhere from 7 to 24 percent of American adults regularly read blogs . Blogs are an application commonly used by online citizen and newspaper journalists to distribute their content. The advent of citizen journalism has great impact on the evolvement in the field of journalism. One of the most significant impact could be diversity of content that are brought by citizen journalism. Many traditional news organizations are adopting citizen content. On the meantime, it is also can affect the citizens’ life and community by participate more in journalism. The presence of online citizen journalism content in the marketplace may add to the diversity of information that citizens have access to when making decisions related to the betterment of their community or their life. As a matter of fact, the traditional news organizations are more authoritativeness and influential. Therefore, citizen journalists contribute and corporate with news organizations, they could be mutually complementary and beneficial. It is important to attract more people to contribute citizen journalism for new organization.

From my personal perspective, there are two main reasons that it is hard for individuals contribute citizen journalism for news organizations.

Firstly, the news organizations serve a large range of people, the news are always with widely influence so that the news organizations can attract more readers. The content of news organizations includes different domain such as economic and international relationship. Much professional knowledge is used in these areas. It is hard for individuals to meet the requirements. However, the information and news that are published by individuals might more relate to their personal life and community. The content of their news and information primarily cover issues, events or people that affect small communities or suburban areas.  Citizen-generated content is likely published for smaller, more homogenized audiences on a less regular basis, which encourages citizen journalists to produce content dissimilar from that of daily newspaper journalists . This could lead to that the news organizations might not take the news that are published by citizen journalists. In turn, when this situation happened frequently it will reduce the enthusiasm of citizen journalism participation.

Secondly, in my opinion, another reason could be that the citizen journalists are more interested in different kinds of topics. And their articles are not like the standard form used in news organizations. Online citizen journalism articles were more likely to feature a greater diversity of topics, information from outside sources and multimedia and interactive features . For years, traditional news organizations are aimed at to create the culture authority and inform the society its news. So, there could be conflict between citizen journalism and news organization on the choice of topics. This could be a reason citizen journalist not to contribute news to news organizations.

Media environment in China

18 Apr

In the Communist countries or the authoritarian regimes, media order is the designed political mechanism to ensure media’s mouthpiece function. The belief that ‘the media must serve both for the politics and for the party’ is one of the written elements of Marxist media theory and has been an integral part of the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) governing scheme

After the application of the economic reforms in 1978, China;s economy, politics and society was under world-shaking changes. The structure of the Chinese mass media was also transformed a lot. Before the economic reforms, all media were belong to the state and were totally financed by state. After the economic reform, Chinese government began to partially privatized the news media, and began to loosen their control in mass media. Commercialized news media started to emerge after the reform. Chinese media were allowed to obtain extra founding through advertising and program sales. As part of media reform the government provided lower levels in the broadcast and print administrative hierarchy with greater authority over programming, personnel, and business decisions .

Today most media institutions finance themselves with advertising revenues, though some continue to receive indirect or small state subsidies (Stockmann, in press).  Beginning in the late 1990s broadcasting followed by print media could be publicly traded on the stock market, and beginning in 2002 non-media state companies were allowed to invest in media groups . Although there remain restrictions about the share of non-state investment into media outlets not to exceed 49%, the state has nevertheless partially transferred property from public toward private ownership . The changes in media reform were particularly focused in management, ownership and financing which lead to the marketization or commercial liberalization of media. With the availability of media sources to audience and news content, China’s mass media has become more internationalized and diverse.

China government relaxed its commercial policy in the early 1980s. More licensed were released into market so that an increasing number of media outlets began to emerge in the market. Lots of “evening papers” and “semiofficial papers” began to challenge the previously existing official papers.

The internet and international media sources such as the CNN, BBC and Newsweek magazine become available to Chinese people after the government decided to open up China to the world in the late 1980s. The world information sources are very competitive with China’s local television, print media and radio broadcasting.

From 1990s till now, The majority of the Chinese media have become increasingly market oriented. The media serve as an instrument of economic development and social modernization  instead of the party and government cheerleader. Even though, the China Communist Party still have the monopoly over political power, which means, of course the CCP still can control the mass media. The department of propaganda has the authority to give editorial guidelines for all the media and to dismiss new media organization personnel. The local branches of Central propaganda consisted with all levels which assure domination of the content of mass media in detail. News media must strictly follow the party guide line to produce their programs and make media policies and directives. They must also subordinate to government leadership and stick to its organizational principles and press policies .

Economic issues in journalism

18 Apr

The influence model introduced that news media produce societal influence and commercial influence. The societal influence can promote the commercial influence. In this model, the content quality, credibility, circulation, profitability and societal influence are key factors that affect and depend on each other. In the glory age of newspaper, they made successful business as well as accomplished its social service mission. But today, both of the functions are threatened for the reason of decline in readership and lost its competition with other media forms with the development in new technology. However, the influence model is still works in today’s media market. Influence of one media decide its competition and survive in market. The newspapers that still publish today survived from pierce competition because of its wide influence. Many factors are required to become influential media.

Newspaper transformed from the original business model that is make money from subscription of audience to charge advertisers. From the beginning of decline in readership in the 1980s, newspaper started to cut cost to be more profitable. The market domination of newspaper became complicated in the internet age. New technology brought great shock to newspaper and forced innovation of newspapers. News organization has to deal with financial constraints. Newspaper companies have to go into the internet market. It is important to know how newspaper’s influence contribute to its web presence. It is important for newspaper to extent its influence into brand value and web product.

New technology of mobile and internet changed news industry in many aspects. All the readings emphasized on the economic problems that new technology brought to new industry. How to survive in online market is vital for the future of news industry. The influence of a news company decided the value of a news company. News information is easy to be shared on line. Most people will try their best to find free information. Traditional news industry is still looking for better solutions for revenue model.

entertainment news

18 Apr

Lot of scholars  held negative attitude and were critical for infotainment of news. They concern that the prominence of entertainment news in news media will gap the audience of hard news and soft news as well as weaken civic and educational responsibility of news media. It will ultimately affect fulfillment of civic and social responsibility of citizens. All the concerns are the negative side of entertainment news. As a matter of fact, there are also many positive results of entertainment news which are merely mentioned in the readings. Entertainment news attracted more audiences of news media. It could promote the influence of news media so that they will gain more audience and advertisers and can be better compete and survive in fierce competition today. The economic situation for today’s news media is not optimistic. One of the advantages of entertainment news is making more profit. Another point I want to mention is some research proved that a large portion of young audience obtain news information from news programs such as Daily show and “The Colbert Report”.

One of the reasons for the prominent of entertainment news  is as a consequence of changing markets. Journalists and news editors are motivated by the profits made from entertainment news to give more news coverage for entertainment, soft news and hype. The other factor for decline in quality journalism is the media’s tendency to pander perceived wants of audience. Further more, the decline of factual hard news has been a result of economic, political, cultural trends in the media and the society at large.

Another reason is that media choices makes it easier for people to find their preferred content and the content preference become a better predictor of knowledge and turnout as media choice increases. Content preference can also be a reason of decline in hard news. Digital technology provided more choices for audience and promoted the efficiency of choosing. More and more audience preferred entertainment news to political and factual hard news, so that it will widen gaps in political knowledge and turnout.

Crime Reports and Journalist Trauma

1 Apr


The discussion of media crime is about is it right to report so much crime in news reports. On one hand, crime reports can help individuals know better about what’s happening in their community and know how to live a safer lives; crime reports can help to investigate and solve the criminal cases; it can dissuade others from committing the same or similar crime; crime coverage can help clarify the lines of acceptable behavior within a society; crime coverage attract a lot of audiences and cover a considerable portion of news coverage. On the other hand, crime coverage can spread fear in a community. Too much of crime coverage will distort people’s view and reaction to the community; it will shape and distort viewers’ concept of reality; disproportionate crime coverage stereotypes minority and distort picture of youth; the copycat effect will lead to more crimes. Too much coverage of crime in news report became one part of media violence.

The reports about crimes in China are a little different from U.S. News coverage of crime didn’t cover too much portion of news reports especially in TV news reports. Most of the crime cases reported in TV news are already solved cases. They never report serious crime immediately after it happened. The reason for news organization to do is to avoid fears spreading in society. They didn’t report crime too much or they will not report until the case solved. It might because that one of their task is to build a harmony and peaceful society.

Although there are lots of negative effects of crime coverage, it can’t stop news media reporting crime. Research showed that number of crime reports is continuously increasing. Therefore it is more important to know how to report crime appropriately so that to minimize the negative effect of it.

The effect of crime reports is not only have great impact on audience but also have great impact on reporters and photographers. Most of researches I have known regarding media violence emphasize effects on audience. It is no doubt that journalists will suffer emotional effects from the trauma they cover. Journalists are just ordinary people. Repeat exposure to crime and victims will definitely affect how the journalists view the world. While news workers often refuse to admit to adverse emotion effects of covering traumatic incidents, they still need to find individual methods for processing these events. Debriefing and counseling are common methods for dealing with the emotional consequences of traumatic event.

The article Best Practices in Trauma Reporting offered tips summarized from Dart Award winners to guide traumatic reporting. The tips are also useful to report crime. It mentioned in this article that all of the Dart Award winners focused on victims, survivors or their loved ones. From my personal perspective, I am more curious and interested in the suspect instead of the victims in a crime report. But cover too much about the suspect will have many negative effects. I saw a news report about a man who brought a gun to a primary school just because he wanted to show on the TV. He wanted more people know him. I also saw lot of journalists interviewed victims after the tragedy happened, some of the victims are still so sad and frighten. Interviewing them may intense their emotion feelings.

Covering crime is like double-edged sword. Journalists have to learn how to report them appropriately and learn how to avoid traumatic emotion of the events on themselves. While it will have negative effects on audiences, it is their right to know what happening in their community. What crucial are how to report crime and how much to report crime.

13 Mar


Should Journalists Be Cautious When Using Exemplification

A new study focused on the role of exemplification on public’s responses to aviation accidents found out that exemplars presented by media can have powerful effects on respondent’s judgments, punitive opinions and attribution. Those who can better recall the exemplifying information could be stronger effected by exemplification that are represented by media. In the case of airplane accidents, public’s prevalence estimate of accident causes and their responses to airline cooperation could be guided by exemplars used by media. Media prefer to use exemplars because they are more vivid and representative. Exemplars choose by media are always typical cases that will drew much attention and will make people discussed about the exemplars. Based on the results, the author suggested that for the practice of journalism, journalists should be cautious when using exemplification. The public relations and cooperate communication should take the initiative in preventing public from making unfavorable attributions that caused by overrepresented exemplars of media. (This article is available in the database of university library). From my personal perspective, on one hand, I supported with the implications drew from the result by the author. On the other hand, I think that use of exemplification by media should be depends on news events. The use of exemplification could lead to positive results and sometimes journalists can use exemplars to lead public opinion. This article paid most of its attention on the effect of exemplification that leads to attributional judgments and audiences’ perceived causes of aviation accidents. But it is based on overrepresented and aggregate exemplars that could be presented by biased media. In many other cases, exemplars can be used to lead public opinion needed to be intellectual and consistent direction to the right direction.

Exemplification theory “addresses the formation and modification of beliefs about phenomena and issues on the basis of samplings of experienced and directly or indirectly witnessed concrete, unitary occurrences that share focal characteristics” (Zillmann,2006, p. S221). The theory is based on the assumption that an event can be represented either as a base-rate or as an exemplar. It focused on the effects of aggregated exemplar (or exemplars) that represent the whole phenomena or issue and predicted that exemplars can have stronger effects than base-rate information on judgments, including attributional judgments. (Zillmann,2010).

According to the exemplification theory, audiences’ opinions can be affected by distorted distribution of exemplars. So that journalists should be cautious in the cases of reporting on issues related to social problems (e.g. poverty, bad economy, unemployment) and health-related issues (e.g. obesity, infectious disease) or other problems result from internal or external attributions. More specifically, personal exemplars of those issues represent by media reports may affect public’s generalized perceptions. If media disproportionately present a considerable amount of exemplars who are impecunious because they are lazy will distort the public’s attributions about poverty and lead to punitive opinions to poor people. As a matter of fact, people became poor might result from many external reasons such as being disability, living in less developed areas or lack opportunity to being educated. If media present too much obesity exemplars who are lazy, gluttonous and morbid could result in public’s blaming of and punitive opinions to obesity people.  However, for better solve of social problems and healthy issues, Similarly, any issue that caused by both internal and external attributions are easy to be disproportionately represented by journalists. Journalists should be cautious to choose exemplars that can balance the internal or external reasons when report those issues.

In cases of issues that might only result from internal attribution or external attribution, exemplars have the ability to make the issue leave a stronger impression on audiences. For example, when reporting international environment issues such as global air pollution, global warming, a large amount of reports mentioned ozone hole, air toxic happened in London and Tokyo in mid and late of the last century. The exemplification of those issues will have greater effect on audiences so that it can help audiences to build right opinions on those issues. Repeated exposure to this type of media information may result in the public’s blaming of and having punitive opinions about industries that caused these problems.

Therefore, journalists and media practitioners should be cautious when dealing with exemplars that can result in causal attributions. While reporting issues that are caused by subjective reasons and should build a punitive opinions on, journalists should not be too cautious.







Livestreaming tools-How is citizen journalism and livestreaming changing the way news is delivered

4 Mar

youtube-ustream-livestream-compatible-approvedCitizen journalists can take advantage of these tools to make live streaming reports just equipped with little more than an iPhone and iPad, a few accessories and social media accounts.They can use YouTube and Ustream accounts to livestream, tweet, blog and write articles. Livestreaming presents a new way to tell a story through video, wherein neither the videographer nor the audience knows what’s about to happen next.
Live streaming tools such as Ustream is a website that consists of a network of diverse channels providing a platform for lifecasting and live video streaming of events online. Established in March 2007, Utream has over 2,000,000 registered users who generate 1,500,000+ hours of live streamed content per month with over ten million unique hits per month.It received $11.1 million in Series A funding for new product development from DCM (Doll Capital Management) and investors Labrador Ventures and Band of Angels.

During the 2008 United States presidential election, the website was used by nearly all of the major candidates to help their campaigns, by allowing a greater number of voters to ask political questions.Former Senator and 2008 Presidential Candidate Mike Gravel became the first candidate ever to stream an alternate debate on Ustream that allowed Sen. Gravel to respond to all of the questions being asked, as well as comment on the responses from the other candidates throughout a nationally televised debate.

There are two good examples of citizen journalists introduced in Meet the Citizen Journalists Livestreaming the Political Conventions who use live srteaming tools to do reports during the Republican and Democratic National Conventions last year. Ennis and Wilt.
“I know there’s been a lot of talk about whether [citizen journalism] is a legitimate field as far as its relationship to professional journalism, but it opened my eyes to the fact that I live in New York City, I could be witnessing something any time, and instead of just hanging out and watching I could pull out my phone and be capturing it live through Ustream,” said Wilt. “Anybody can be a citizen journalist, it’s about how you conduct yourself professionally, that right now is the question — if you can be taken seriously or not.” What Wilt said is encouraging. Livestreaming tools will be an effective tool to encourage more people to do news reports.


4 Mar


Media Convergence

25 Feb

One important reason for the appearance of media convergence is the development of digital technology. In the meantime, media convergence also facilitated the development of technology in some content. The influence of technology in news industry and journalist as well as the changes brought by technology and media convergence is obvious in recent years. Technological improvements have helped reduce the need for a large number of journalists to do reporting and make “one-man band”GOOFY-ONE-MAN-BAND-I_7745 become possible. It required journalist to use multi-media skills.
Media convergence has become an irresistible trend in the future of media. Journalists should have the critical thinking and the ability to break through media boundaries and can adapt to the needs of different media (whether print media, radio and television media or online media). Cultivating journalists with ability to grasp multi-task skills became an important responsibility for media schools. The demand of journalists to master multi-media skills leaded to changes in media education. Educators should still emphasize critical thinking in journalism schools and teach students how to express their critical thinking with conversant technical skills in different media.
Convergence is not only limited to media but also catching a big picture of future trends, changes, and developments. The diffusion of media technology created new ways of gathering and disseminating communication information. This implicated that it is vital for the survival of news media in fierce competition to develop multiple reading terminal. For example, online newspapers, apps for smart phones and tablets and any other handhold readers will become a new market for news media. The convergence of media and other non-media field-architecture, law, medicine, education and government is mainly obvious when media skills such as photo taking and editing, 2D and 3D animation, website designing applied in these areas have promoted the effectiveness and convenience of their operation. This will in turn expand influence of media.
Technology facilitate media convergence. Technology transformed the news industry and newsroom organization structure. Magazines began to emphasizing analysis rather than traditional news to re-invent. I think that this is important for paper-based media. They can’t release information as fast as electronic media such as TV and internet. But research showed that newspapers and magazines are perceived more credible than other platforms. They have more advantages on providing depth analysis. Technology has changed journalists’ job, changed the way to gather and deliver news. Technology has provided audience with new ways to interact with the media. It allowed audience to become part of storytelling processing. Multi-media platform make information easier to gather and disseminate. It is vital for the development of citizen journalist.
One-man bands is a result of journalists’ conversant technical skills. It can reduce the staff of media companies which will reduce cost of media companies. So there is concern that media companies might prefer to hire journalists have a competitive edge in skills instead of critical thinking. However, the concern might be solved if journalists are trained to be critical thinkers and have the ability to use multimedia skill.
The advantage of media convergence might be more obvious in non-democratic countries. Media convergence expanded the influence of information freedom. It made information transparent and spread fast which makes it easier for news media to carry out watchdog function.

25 Feb

A concern of news selection for news media is giving readers what they want or need. It is more related to traditional news selection by gatekeeping function of editors. Traditional print newspapers confronted with devastating declines in circulation, advertising revenues and massive reduction in newsroom staff. Many news organizations have closed, some are sought bankruptcy protection and some moved to hybrid print/ online or web-only production. Communication technology gave readers unlimited access to information from internet and marked a shit to customizable and interactive content.
The newspaper economic crisis formed the first reason for giving readers what they want. Newspapers have a right and obligation to support their own financial independence. The first duty of newspaper is to make profit to continue to publish. Newspapers should be marketed like commodity and do market research to find out what readers want and satisfy their wants. The libertarian supporter said that if newspaper didn’t give readers what they want they will find it online quickly and easily. I am doubt about this point. They turned to give what readers they want to survive in the competition with online news information. If the readers can find information they need online more easily and quickly, why will they pay for newspapers for the same information. Even though newspapers provided the information readers wanted, they will prefer to find it online. Trustee model supporters argued that in order to make democracy function properly, citizens must be informed about important public matters for better fulfill social responsibility. Recently, a considerable research showed that citizens are losing their social capital and losing interest in politic issues and public affairs. I think that the press has a responsibility to arouse public interests in public issues.
The second argument for marked- drive newspaper is a doubt of editors role to select news for readers as the editors might be arrogant and elitist. I think this point is a cynical. Most of editors are professional and well experienced in news industry. They have the ability to select news on the basis of their professional judgments and conscience. They can make their best to choose news to inform public what they need to know as well as what will maintain their interest.
The third argument of reader-friendly journalismNewspapers is that tradition editors lost touch with changing reader interests and lifestyles which has result in the long-term downward circulation spirals. I think it is unfair to say that because development of digital technology has been considered as the most important reasons for decline in newspaper circulation.

Changes of journalism brought by technology

25 Feb

Technology is transforming the news industry. Newsroom organization structure has been transformed in response to new technological developments. It made journalists to work in a more flexible and decentralized environment. Technology has changed journalists’ job. Journalist have to change to accommodate technology through which has allow journalists to acquire many of the skills once were in the domain of production workers. The changing face of journalism is leading journalists yo develop a host of the new skills that make them more marketable. Technology has changed the way to gather and deliver news. Technology has changed the way news organization to make revenue. Technology has provided audience with new ways to interact with the media. It allowed audience to become part of storytelling processing. Multi-media platform make information easier to gather and disseminate. Hyper local news has grown through the use of new technology. It is vital for the development of citizen journalist.
Technology of mobile device provides convenient plat form for people access to news. Eight in ten who get smart phones and tablet download news apps in their device. In what degree the technology could control future of journalism became a new challenge for the news organizations.
The gap between news and technology is widening. News organization should keep space with mobile platform and social media, technology giants develop application programs relate to all filed of very day life. Majority of online advertisement revenue is occupied by technology giants. The phenomenon news industries descend from leader to flower of its business for the reason that they are late to adapt to content creation than engineering has grown this year. Development of news industry market became passive because they are constrained by technology.
This leads to a new problem for news industry. Whether or not technology giants consider cooperating with news firms to be their news partner is important for news companies’ survival in market. The benefit relationship between technology giants and news companies is tighter than before. Many cooperation relationship established last year, YouTube and Routers, Yahoo and ABC, AOL purchased The Huffington Post, Facebook created partnerships with several well-known news brands.
At the same time, some news operations take measures to protect revenue. The Associated Press and other news companies license news content and collect royalties from aggregators. Some companies created their own digital ad sales network and step into digital marketing. Some companies even drop out “app” worlds by using HTML 5. The development of newspapers is still getting worse. As main news sources of government and civic affairs, shrivel of newspapers will reduce those sources.
Over all, the news industry didn’t find better solutions for their revenue model and became more passive in competition with industry technology. The positive aspect is people are engaged more in news. This is important for the future of journalism.
New technology of mobile and internet changed news industry in many aspects. This article emphasized on the economic problems that new technology brought to new industry. How to survive in online market is vital for the future of news industry. Because it is the most important change and requires urgent need to solve. The problem also distracts news industry from paying more attention to news content. They need to make more efforts to adapt to new technology and invest more money and labor on technology.
The Financial Times, The Boston Globe and a few organizations drop out the app world to protect their revenue. It is irrational to be so assertive to the new technology. It seems like that they rejected an effective access of their news to the audience. The influence of a news company decided the value of a news company. News information is easy to be shared on line. Most people will try their best to find free information. To take extreme measure to protect profit may leave bad impression among audiences.
Traditional journalists are facing with challenge of economic crisis, transformation of news room, job task and working conditions. But they have much more readers than before due to online newspapers. And they can use multiple platforms –print, online and mobiles-to generate content.
People have the initiative to choose news brands and information. It intensifies the competition between news companies. As it said in the article, news are a more important and pervasive part of people’s lives, that could provide a saving factor for the future of journalism. I suggest that while the news industry attributes efforts to the competition with technology giants, they should also devote more efforts to promote competition with counterparts.


More than social net work

18 Feb BreakingNews

sociak network sites have revolutionized the way the public gets and shares information about breaking news events.

In this story, A tale of two cop-killer hunts shows shifting role of Twitter from Seattle to LA the citizens and journalists shared updates and their condolences and fear after Washington shooting tragedy in their community by using twitter. Twitter played a positive role to exchanging information and express emotions in that event. In the past week, in Los Angeles, twitter played a different role in another shooting case. the San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Office asked the media to stop tweeting. Like the author Kelly McBride said: “Twitter is one way that people talk to each other. And people can’t possibly not talk about the most gripping and dramatic events in their community.”
Several reasons why people use twitter for information of breaking news.
First, Fast. Timeless is most important factors of information. After any breaking news events happened, people always could not get enough information at first time from official channels such as news reports, government release. But the public can get the fastest and newest from social –net work sites. It is fast because anyone can release information he got. The information do not need to be censored and edited and verified. Even though some information are inaccurate, it will still attract lots of attention. Sometimes these information got more attention than official information.
Second, massive information. As public can release information they got, so there are more information can find on social net-work sites. Many hands make light work. More information can be gathered by public than official workers.
Third, interactivity. In addition to search information, public can also express their concerns, doubts and discuss their opinions. They can also criticize others.
Fourth, sense of accomplishment. When people re-tweet posts, it will encourage more people to join in the discussion.

6 Feb

When fact-cheking hits a wall.(Nieman Journalism Lab)
Fact-checking journalists’ vigorous response to vice presidential nominee Paul Ryan’s convention speech are as a sort of coming-out party for fact-checking. It marked a new level of integration of the blogging ethos into political journalism. But a problem of the political fact-checkers is that what happens when the politicians they’re checking don’t care what they say? Grist’s David Roberts argued that the norm of objectivity leaves them with weak, limited options. Others wondered whether fact-checking is all that effective in a cynical political world. Reuters’ Jack Shafer said that fact-checking isn’t gonging to stop politicians from lying or make voters care much about politicians’ deception. On the other hand, many U.S. organizations are reluctant to give up their “view from nowhere” to buy into fact-checking. But, It is no doubt to have fact-cheking in the press, the problem is how it should be done. Kevin Drum suggested recalibrating fact-cheking standards to focus o the broader deception at work, rather than simply fine-grained facts. Columbia Journalism Review’s Justin Peters urged news orgs to continue pushing forward with fact-cheking, experimenting with ways to make it fit into all of their political reporting and do it on deadline.
A bellwether bankruptcy for newspapers?
The Journal Register Co. newspaper chain filed for bankruptcy this week for the second time since 2009 . Event hough its digital audience have doubled and digital revenue has tripled since its last bankruptcy that hasn’t been enough to offset decline in print advertising and circulation. On the other side, Steve Buttry think that bankruptcy wouldn’t derail the company’s digital progress.It is necessary sfor newspapers transformed into digital sustainability. Numerous newspaper companies are face with debts, bankruptcy is a stratege to shed some of those pension obligation. Martin Langeveld skepticized strategic bankruptcy. The Lab’s Josh Benton content that the problem is
“that they can no longer make that money at the scale they could 10 years ago — but their cost structures are still tied to that old scale.”

Ideas for newspapers’ reinvention
The most interesting proposal is Frederic Filloux’s case for raising the price of newspapers’ print products, based on a study by a German marketing firm that argued for offsetting circulation revenue losses by turning print into a premium product. But it would only work for high-quality products. Clay Shirky suggested that legacy news organizations have been shrinking as they’ve needed to but don’t need to restructure and reinvent themselves.

Newspapers getting outsmarted on mobile

6 Feb

Newspapers getting outsmarted on mobile

Apple and Google make their smart phones smarter to capture local advertising market. Their efforts are a major threat to newspapers hoping to take advantage of their local franchises to become significant players in mobile space. Smarter apps will marginalize the value of free-standing, single-function apps offered by newspapers.


Research of BIA/Kelsey showed that advertising purchases on handheld gizmos are expected to climb 4.5 times from last year’s levels to $7.7 billion by the end of 2016 – a sum equal to approximately a third of the combined ad sales of all the nation’s newspapers in 2011. They predict that half of the sales will obtain from local advertising.


in June, Apple decided to give up using Google’s mapping software on new iPhone. Google released an improved version of Google Now, a voice-activated digital assistant for its Android devices that emulates – and in some circumstances surpasses –Siri assistant on iphone. At the same time, Google completed its acquisition of Motorola Mobility, providing the search king for the first time with the same end-to-end control over software and hardware that Apple has long enjoyed.

The Great Innovation of Microblogging

23 Jan


This article clarified the innovation of microblogging, (Microblogging is a broadcast medium in the form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregate file size. Microblogs “allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links”.These small messages are sometimes called microposts.) especially in China. In addition, the author talked about some concepts of nanopublishing, information hubs, grassroots media, civic twitter and self-supervising.


Microblogging is defined as “grassroots media” byDan Gillmor, (dangillmor.com/)an American columnist. It is of the people and for the people, and it can produce the civic news. Nanopublishing can be competitive with short content and large publishing amount. The number of microblogging followers might be larger than that of tradition media audiences.


Traditional media often combines news with advertisements. Commercial media may feel confused about how to make a choice between expanding its viewers and reflecting the truth. However, microblogging can be more independent and objective as it is usually created by all the netizens.


In addition, people-oriented microblogging can promote the development of civic journalism. It can create a great community for citizens to participate in public events and a container for public opinions.


Microblogging can become the “We Media” of ordinary users. “We Media” means a communication method in which ordinary citizens, empowered by digital technologies, can create their own news and stories. Microblogging owns the characteristic of individuation and interaction. It’s the platform for users to produce and consume content. Users can release their own tracks, lives and jobs. They possess their own online space, show their individualities and express their opinions in it. According to Murdoch, the president of News Corporation, young people want to control their media and not to be controlled by it.

Microblogging may become the new media for news communication. When an event takes place, professional journalists often can’t reach the spot immediately due to the time and distance limit. However, microblogging can provide the chance for ordinary witnesses to become the source of information. The witnesses can post the event information on their homepage through microblogs, photos and videos produced by cell phones. As the 3G cell phones own the functions of taking photos, recording, shooting and positioning, they can help users release multimedia information. Sometimes televisions, newspapers and news websites may process the original news. On the contrary, the news from microblogging websites usually comes from first-hand information of the site and is therefore more reliable and vivid.



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